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U.S. Forest Service: Fuel and Fire Tools (FFT)

Uses fuels data classified as fuelbeds to let users perform a variety of calculations related to fire behavior and emissions. These include predicting surface and crown fire behavior, fuel consumption, pollutant emissions (including carbon emissions), and heat release. The FFT integrates several tools that were previously stand-alone into a single user interface (including the FCCS).


Inputs vary depending on the specific application. However, all applications require the user to choose the fuelbeds that most closely resemble their assessment area as a starting point. Users can select from an assembled list of fuel-beds which were compiled from published & unpublished literature, fuels photo series, fuels data sets and expert opinion.


Relevant to carbon estimation, outputs include quantitative measures of carbon storage, combustible carbon (by fuelbed category) and estimates of emissions from fire.

Restrictions and Limitations

The FFT uses fuelbeds as the basis for the tool outputs, therefore it is essential that these are characterized accurately across the landscape of interest. A default set of fuelbeds and environmental variables (e.g. moisture content) are included in the tool, but if fuels vary across a landscape, custom fuelbeds with custom environmental variables will need to be created. The Fire Emission Production Simulator is still in development.




Land Manager

Time Scale:


Tool Developers:

Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (contact: Roger Ottmar)