A changing climate poses risks for urban forests.
Some forest pests may benefit from warmer temperatures, leading to tree damage and mortality. Heavy rain events and some types of storms may also increase in the coming decades, which can increase stormwater runoff, flooding, and tree breakage. Adaptation actions, such as tree species diversification and improved stormwater management can help reduce these risks.
The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) is an invasive tree-killing pest that was found in Worcester in 2008. Eighty percent of street trees in Worcester at this time were maples, which is the preferred host for the beetle. This left many streets vulnerable when the pest appeared. The maple trees were severely damaged by the ALB infestation, and the dead and dying trees were removed. When considering how to replant the area, there was an effort to diversify both street trees and trees on private property. Having a variety of species helps shield Worcester’s urban forest against future potential threats.
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Healthy trees and forests provide communities with many climate-related benefits.
With active planning, management, and care, an urban forest can improve community resilience to heavy rain. Since so many trees had been removed due to the ALB infestation, the City of Worcester installed several stormwater tree pits at strategic points within the city in order to reduce the increased amount of stormwater entering the city's storm drains. Tree removal also reduced the loss of green, cooling spaces. Trees provide shade and can reduce temperatures related to the heat island effect. A replanting program organized by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Worcester Tree Initiative, and other partners focused on reforesting Worcester’s canopy. By 2014, approximately 30,000 trees had been replanted.
"Among the many potential impacts of climate change, changes in insect and disease populations rise to the top as the most immediate and possibly significant impact on our forests. This is because of the destructive potential of forest pests and the direct link between climate and pest survival or spread. In particular, climate influences: frequency and intensity of outbreaks; spatial patterns, size, and geographical range of outbreaks; life cycles, range shifts, range expansions or contractions."
Available resources from this tour:
- Discovery of Asian Longhorned Beetle in Worcester
- Worcester's Proactive Response to Asian Longhorned Beetle
- Asian Longhorned Beetle Host Removal from Dodge Park
- Urban Tree Selection
- Worcester's Stormwater Management
- Worcester's Urban Heat Island Study
- Conserving Worcester's Canopy
- Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication in Worcester
- Selecting Tree Species for Planting in Areas Where ALB/EAB Are a Concern (USDA APHIS)
- Stormwater Tree Pit (Charles River Watershed Association)
- Stormwater to Street Trees (EPA)
- Forest Adaptation Resources: Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers, 2nd Edition (U.S. Forest Service)
- Forest Pests and Climate Change (Climate Smart Land Network and Manomet)
- Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies (EPA)
- Effects of urban tree canopy loss on land surface temperature magnitude and timing (Clark University + U.S. Forest Service)
- Tree Planting 101 (Massachusetts Urban and Community Forestry Program)